There is precious little scientific evidence to suggest that genes are our destiny — and more and more evidence of neuroplasticity — the capacity to influence the way our genes express themselves. So what, then, can leaders do to most effectively inspire and nurture excellence in those they lead? Here are six keys:
1. Ban words like "talented," "gifted," and "special" from your vocabulary. Well meaning as these words may be, they tend to give people credit for something they did nothing to earn, while also suggesting that others don't have equal potential. Consider replacing these words with ones like "effective," "determined," "accomplished," "skilled," "persevering," and "masterful," all of which give due credit to effort.
2. Regularly, genuinely, and specifically acknowledge and appreciate people's successes. Believe deeply in their potential, enthusiastically encourage their passions, and don't be overly fazed by their failures. There may be nothing more motivating to the people you lead than to notice what they're doing well, and to express your appreciation with detail and specificity. Likewise, there may be no single more powerful act than to handwrite and mail someone a personal note of appreciation.
3. Provide constant feedback. Annual or semi-annual reviews are vastly insufficient and often worthless. Most people don't improve their skills over time, in large part because they don't get consistent, specific feedback. That's different than judgment or criticism. As often as possible, resist pointing out people's deficits, and focus instead on where you can help them improve or take it to the next level in any given area.
4. Create and protect periods of uninterrupted focus. Don't demand instant responses from your people all day long. Interruptions fracture their attention, and absorbed focus is a prerequisite to high quality work, especially on the most challenging tasks. Stop measuring your people by how many hours they work, and assess them instead based on the value they produce.
5. Encourage and model intermittent renewal throughout the day. Great performers, the research shows, work intensely for periods no longer than 90 minutes and then stop to recover and refuel. Create a "renewal room" so people have a place to truly chill out. Nothing better fuels productivity in the afternoons than a 20-30 minute nap between 12 and 2 p.m, and encouraging people to exercise at midday runs a close second.
6. Tie the pursuit of excellence to a larger mission. Excellence requires enormous effort. You need to give your people a compelling reason to push beyond their comfort zones. What most of us hunger for is evidence that what we're doing truly matter and serves something beyond the bottom line. CEOs such as Alan Mullally at Ford, John Chambers at Cisco, and Steve Jobs at Apple have done a great job rallying their people around a higher mission. Start by defining what you truly stand for, share with others what gets you up in the morning as often as you can, and encourage people to go through the same exercise for themselves.
Tony Schwartz, Harvard Business Review, November 2010